Component of gravity perpendicular to the slope which helps hold the object in place Fig. The components of gravity acting on a mass resting on a tilted surface. Thus the tendency to slide down the slope becomes greater.
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All forces resisting movement downslope can be grouped under the term shear strength. This is controlled by frictional resistance and cohesion of particles in an object , amount of pore pressure of water, and anchoring effect of plant roots.
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Water has the ability to change the angle of repose the steepest slope at which a pile of unconsolidated grains remain stable. To demonstrate this concept, the teacher will create a sand hill using dry, damp, and water-saturated sand by flipping a paper cup full of the sand material upside down on a paper plate. Note that dry, unconsolidated grains will form a pile with slope angle determined by its angle of repose. For slightly wet sand, a high angle of repose will be observed while a very low angle of repose will be observed for water-saturated sand.
- Teaching Angle of Repose.
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Ask the students why this is so. Emphasize that it is surface tension that holds the grains together and helps them stick more than they do when they are dry. The opposite happens for sand with too much water. In saturated sand, all the pore spaces are filled with water eliminating grain to grain contact. Water in the interconnected pores exerts pressure which then reduces the shearing force between the particles. Thus the angle of repose is also reduced. Addition of water from rainfall or snowmelt adds weight to the slope.
Water can reduce the friction along a sliding surface Presence of clays. Expansive and hydrocompacting soils - contain a high proportion of smectite or montmorillonite which expand when wet and shrink when they dry out, Sensitive soils - clays in some soils rearrange themselves after dissolution of salts in the pore spaces. Clay minerals line up with one another and the pore space is reduced. Quick clays - water-saturated clays that spontaneously liquefy when disturbed Weak materials and structures - become slippage surfaces if weight is added or support is removed bedding planes, weak layers, joints and fractures, foliation planes.
Make sure that the teacher explains all the enumerated terms.
Classify mass wasting processes. Collect sample visual aids images, illustrations, photos, video clips etc. Slope failures- sudden failure of the slope resulting in transport of debris downhill by rolling, sliding, and slumping. Rodolfo, K. Creep occurs when regolith alternately expands and contracts in response to freezing and thawing, wetting and drying, or warming and cooling. Earth flow - involves fine-grained material such as clay and silt and usually associated with heavy rains or snowmelt; tend to be narrow tongue-like features that that begin at a scarp or cliff Grain flow - forms in dry or nearly dry granular sediment with air filling the pore spaces such as sand flowing down the dune face Debris avalanche - very high velocity flows involving huge masses of falling rocks and debris that break up and pulverize on impact; often occurs in very steep mountain ranges.
Some studies suggest that high velocities result from air trapped under the rock mass creating a cushion of air that reduces friction Describe subaqueous mass wasting. Subaqueous mass movement occurs on slopes in the ocean basins. This may occur as a result of an earthquake or due to an over-accumulation of sediment on slope or submarine canyon. Shocks and vibrations - earthquakes and minor shocks such as those produced by heavy trucks on the road, man-made explosions Slope modification - creating artificially steep slope so it is no longer at the angle of repose Undercutting - due to streams eroding banks or surf action undercutting a slope Changes in hydrologic characteristics - heavy rains lead to water-saturated regolith increasing its weight, reducing grain to grain contact and angle of repose; Changes in slope strength - weathering weakens the rock and leads to slope failure; vegetation holds soil in place and slows the influx of water; tree roots strengthen slope by holding the ground together Volcanic eruptions - produce shocks; may produce large volumes of water from melting of glaciers during eruption, resulting to mudflows and debris flows Enumerate and discuss some landslide warning signs Springs, seeps, or saturated ground in areas that have not typically been wet before.
New cracks or unusual bulges in the ground, street pavements or sidewalks. Soil moving away from foundations. Tilting or cracking of concrete floors and foundations. Broken water lines and other underground utilities. Leaning telephone poles, trees, retaining walls or fences.
Do you think it is family? Please let me know your thoughts. Excellent essay.
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I read Crossing to Safety years ago and was very impressed by the prose and sense of craft in his work. Your review has reminded me to read more of his work soon. Thanks, Stephen! I need to.
Everything Stegner wrote is gold. Well, now, Emily, you do not need to do anything. Your current project is plenty admirable. The only thing I wish to add concerning Wallace Stegner is that from my personal point of view, I cannot think of another novelist who deals with issues of aging as skillfully and as perceptively as he does. Just came across your blog. Great to discover someone else who likes Stegner.
Angle of Repose Lab
I love works that evoke a sense of place—Angle of Repose definitely is one of his best. Have you read any Wendell Berry? His Port William stories, especially Hannah Coulter are wonderful. Great blog!
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Thank you! I did not enjoy Crossing to Safety, although everybody I know did, so I think that one needs a reread so I can appreciate it!
Thanks for the comment. Emily—So glad to have discovered your blog! I am on goodreads! It is nice to have you here! I like to read summaries, reviews, critiques, and exegeses on the novel at hand, when time permits. I found your blog by searching for Stegner on the Web.
Thanks for your review—adds another hue to the palette of Stegner criticism. I bet you know this one! How cool! Angle of Repose is one of the few books I can read and reread and never get bored with. It is such a great novel. I hope you end up loving it as much as I do. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Create a free website or blog at WordPress. Do you admire Wallace Stegner?
Which of his books is your favorite? Works Cited Burrows, Russell.